Gakutensoku, Japan's first robot, 1929
Gakutensoku, translated as "learning from the laws of nature," was the first robot to be built in Osaka, Japan, in 1929. Created by biologist Makoto Nishimura, the robot could move its face, head and hands via an air-pressure system. Gakutensoku went missing during a tour of Germany in the 1930s. In 2008, the Osaka Science Museum created a replica.