Test your Nobel knowledge
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Nobel invented dynamite by combining nitroglycerin with diatomaceous earth, patenting it in 1867. Though the element nobelium is indeed named after him, Nobel did not discover it.
- Discovering the element nobelium
- Inventing dynamite
- Drafting the armistice that ended the Crimean War
Alfred Nobel's last will and testament dictated that his fortunes would be dispersed in a series of prizes. In fact, Nobel's family did not support his decision.
- Alfred Nobel’s children established it in his memory.
- Alfred Nobel established it in his last will and testament.
- The Swedish government created the Nobel Foundation in honor of Nobel’s work as a chemist and engineer.
Nobel's will established a Norwegian committee to award the Peace Prize. All other prizes are presented in Stockholm, Sweden.
- Stockholm, Sweden
- Washington, D.C.
- Oslo, Norway
Alfred Nobel was born in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1833. He also lived in Paris, the United States and Italy, among other places.
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (also called the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences) was created by its namesake, the central bank of Sweden, in 1968.
- Economic Sciences
- Physiology or Medicine
Including the prize in economic sciences, there have been 561 prizes awarded between 1901 and 2013.
Adolf Hitler would not allow three German Nobel laureates to accept the Nobel Prize, while the Soviet Union forced the 1958 Nobel Laureate in literature, Boris Pasternak, to decline his prize for political reasons.
Though Nobel Foundation rules forbid the award being giving posthumously, the rules have been broken no less than three times. Though, to be fair, two out of three posthumous awards occurred before the stipulation was added in 1974.
- Three Nobel laureates were under arrest when they were awarded the Nobel Prize.
- Two Nobel laureates declined a Nobel Prize.
- Besides awards to organizations, there has never been a Nobel Prize shared by more than three laureates.
- The Nobel Prize has never been awarded posthumously.
The youngest recipient of a Nobel Prize was Lawrence Bragg, who was 25 years old at the time. Bragg won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1915.
The oldest recipient of a Nobel Prize was Leonid Hurwicz, who was 90 when he was given the prize for Economic Sciences in 2007.
Out of the 561 awards, less than 1 percent have gone to women.
The first woman to receive a Nobel Prize was none other than Marie Curie, who won the 1903 Nobel Prize in physics along with her husband, Pierre. Curie, who also won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1935, was the only woman to receive the Nobel Prize twice.
- Mother Teresa
- Marie Curie
- Jane Addams
- Grazia Deledda
Each diploma is hand-crafted by Swedish and Norwegian artists, while all medals traditionally show a portrait of Alfred Nobel on the front; the reverse side design depends on the institution. Each medal is engraved with the laureate’s name.
- Traditional diploma, personalized medal, check for prize amount
- Unique diploma, traditional medal, check for prize amount
- Traditional diploma, traditional medal, document confirming prize amount
- Unique diploma, personalized medal, document confirming prize amount
This year, each Nobel Prize amount is set at SEK 8 million, or about $1.2 million. Alfred Nobel designated SEK 31 million (valued today at about $1.7 billion) of his personal estate for the fund.
- Swedish kronor (SEK) 3 million (about $450,000)
- SEK 5 million (about $750,000)
- SEK 8 million (about $1.2 million)
- SEK 10 million (about $1.5 million)
Many believe the former British prime minister won the Nobel Peace Prize. He was nominated for it along with the Nobel Prize in literature and was only awarded the latter.
- Nobel Peace Prize
- Nobel Prize in literature
- Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences
- Nobel Prize in physics
Hitler was nominated in 1939 and Stalin was nominated twice, once in 1945 and again in 1948. Neither man was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
- Franklin D. Roosevelt
- Joseph Stalin
- Adolf Hitler
- Queen Elizabeth II
Gandhi was nominated five times but was never awarded the prize. His last nomination was in 1948, but he was assassinated soon thereafter. Though the committee technically could have awarded the prize posthumously (the rules allowed it up until 1974), they did not award the peace prize that year because “there was no suitable living candidate.”
No Brazilian citizen has ever received the Nobel Prize. Prizes have been awarded to citizens from 73 countries.
Including 2013 laureates, 350 winners of the Nobel Prize have been from the U.S., while 120 laureates were from the U.K., and 104 from Germany. Though it is the home of the Nobel Prize, Sweden has only had 30 laureates.
- United Kingdom
- United States of America
The International Committee of the Red Cross received the Peace Prize three times, twice during the world wars and once again in 1963. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees won the Peace Prize twice. Four individuals, including Curie and Pauling, have won a Nobel Prize twice.
- Marie Curie
- The International Committee of the Red Cross
- Linus Pauling
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
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