For decades, most Americans had never heard of Katherine Johnson, Mary Jackson or Dorothy Vaughan.
That all changed after the film "Hidden Figures" was released in 2016. The movie, which is based on a true story, features the women who helped launch John Glenn into space on the Friendship 7 mission in 1962, becoming the first American to orbit the Earth.
"Hidden Figures" shines the spotlight on unsung scientists Johnson, Jackson and Vaughan, who made the Friendship 7 mission possible. These women were members of a group of "human computers" charged with calculating flight paths and other aeronautical measurements necessary for NASA to win the space race.
Because of Jim Crow laws, these scientists were segregated from white scientists and were even referred to as "colored computers."
These women faced a myriad of struggles as they navigated civil rights and gender inequality issues while performing groundbreaking science.
The period drama is an adaptation of journalist Margot Lee Shetterly’s "Hidden Figures: The Story of the African-American Women Who Helped Win the Space Race."
Most people can name the famous participants in the space race, like John Glenn, but many minorities often go unnoticed. But that's changing.
Honoring a legacy
In 2019, NASA renamed one of its facilities in West Virginia after Johnson. The Independent Verification and Validation Facility in Fairmont, West Virginia, will now be known as the Katherine Johnson Independent Verification and Validation Facility. The main duties performed are making sure software programs operate.
"I am thrilled we are honoring Katherine Johnson in this way as she is a true American icon who overcame incredible obstacles and inspired so many," said NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine. "It’s a fitting tribute to name the facility that carries on her legacy of mission-critical computations in her honor."
Johnson was also awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian honor, in 2015 by then-President Obama.
As more books and films about women and minorities shine light on these unsung pioneers, the trailblazers will get the recognition they deserve. And as younger audiences discover these heroes, their understanding and enthusiasm for STEM fields is likely to grow. (In fact, if you want to know more about NASA and race relations, there's a compelling history of the changing role of race on the NASA website.)
Editor's note: This article has been updated since it was originally published in April 2016.