The sap of the sugar maple tree is one of the most delicious natural sweeteners in the world, though it seems that not many people outside the Northeast United States and Canada appreciate its unique flavor and health benefits. Whenever I’ve traveled outside New England — even as close as New York City — I’m often given fake syrup (that’s what I call it) for pancakes, waffles and French toast. Thanks, but I’d rather have some fruit, because that fake stuff is usually made with maple "flavor" (whatever that is) and high fructose corn syrup, which is not a healthy breakfast ingredient — though it is cheap.
Real maple syrup is worth the extra expense, and it's not only great as a hot cakes topper but in plenty of other dishes, too. It's a great sweetener for breakfast cereals, hot or cold, tops up cottage cheese and yogurt, makes a tasty marinade for tofu or meat, and even tastes great in a latte or cappuccino. But why choose maple syrup over other natural sweeteners like honey or sugar?
Sweet health benefits
The health benefits of maple syrup are varied and some of them are so far unproven. What we do know is that it contains significant levels of manganese and zinc, and has 10 times more calcium than honey and much less salt. And despite the fact that it's a type of sugar — sucrose — there are some studies that suggest that it could help prevent Type 2 diabetes. According to an article in the Classical Medicine Journal, researchers have found that maple syrup phenolics, which are antioxidant compounds "... inhibit two carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes that are relevant to type 2 diabetes." Researchers also found a compound they named Quebecol, a compound created only when sap is boiled to make syrup. "Quebecol has a unique chemical structure or skeleton never before identified in nature," according to Navindra Seeram of the University of Rhode Island.
Phenolics have also been shown to help with the effectiveness of antibiotics. A study presented during the 2017 conference for the American Chemical Society demonstrated that when researchers paired phenolic compounds and antibiotics, they needed less of the antibiotic than usual to kill the bacteria. "What we found is that when we added the antibiotics with maple syrup-extracted phenolic compounds, we actually needed a lot less antibiotic to kill the bacteria. We could reduce the dose of antibiotic by up to 90 percent," lead researcher Nathalie Tufenkji told CTV News.
Tufenkji and her team tested the combination on a few different different bacteria, including E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, which causes some urinary tract infections, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a cause of some hospital-acquired infections. Researchers then treated fruit fly and moth larvae food with bacteria that would kill off the consumers quickly with a little bit of the antibiotic and phenolic mixture. The result? Both specimens lived longer than would have otherwise, and they suffered no negative side effects.
"This tells us this treatment approach is very promising in terms of reducing the usage of antibiotics in fighting infections," Tufenkji said. The next step, according to Tufenkji will be treating mice with the mixture.
Finding the right syrup
Vermont is New England’s syrup industry leader, with more than 1.3 million gallons of syrup produced in 2015, and the tiny state produced 5.5 percent of the global supply. New York is the next most productive U.S. state that taps its trees for the golden syrup, with more than 500,000 gallons produced last year. Massachusetts, Connecticut, Maine, New Hampshire, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin and Michigan all make maple syrup in quantities of around or below 100,000 gallons a year. But Canada is the undisputed world leader in maple syrup production, creating about 80 percent of world's pure maple syrup in 2015. (An earlier version of this story inexplicably omitted Canada. Apologies to our neighbors to the north for that.) Japan and South Korea also produce syrup on a much smaller scale. It's also worth nothing that in Asia, it's traditional to drink the sap as a beverage called gorosoe (considered a health elixir in large quantities), rather than boil it down into syrup.
So what do you need to know before replacing your artificial sweetener or sugar with maple syrup? Because the sticky stuff is made in several countries and U.S. states, there are different ways of classifying it, which can be confusing. Canada has three classifying levels; No. 1, with extra light (AA), light (A) medium (B) and No. 2 (Amber) and No. 3 (Dark). In the U.S., it's divided into Grade A (with either light amber or fancy, medium amber, or dark amber) or Grade B. Vermont and New Hampshire each have different rules (from each other and the U.S. scale) about which syrups can be given which grades, which depend on how long it has been boiled down, and the original sap content from the tree. In general, lighter shades have a less intense maple flavor (which is great for cereals and coffee) than darker shades (which are better for baking, fudge, marinades and sauces).
The only way you can know if you like maple syrup if you've never tried it is to taste it for yourself, so start with a smaller container, and try some right off the spoon to get an idea of the flavor. Try it on cereal or with yogurt or whipped into a smoothie (or you heat it up on the stove, and throw it out on the snow or ice once winter comes for the Northeastern treat, "sugar on snow"). Or you can check out this page of New England treats, or this one, for recipes featuring the tasty syrup from the sugar maple tree.
This story was originally published September 2015 and has been updated with new information.