Louis Braille was born in 1809 on Coupvray, France. At the age of 3, an eye injury left him blind. Studying at the Royal Institute for Blind Youth in Paris, Louis invented a system of reading and writing for the blind involving raised dots, which today is known as Braille. At age 19, Braille became a full-time teacher at the Royal Institute, where he remained until his death at age 43.
Today, Braille is a universally used tactile method of writing and reading for the blind. Studies have shown that congenitally legally blind adults "who learned to read using Braille had higher employment rates and educational levels, were more financially self-sufficient, and spent more time reading than did those who learned to read using print."