Ninety-one percent of U.S. pet owners consider their pets to be family members, and they treat them as such, spending time and money to ensure their furry friends are happy and healthy.

Last year, we spent $56 billion on our pets, and according to the American Pet Products Association, we spend an average of $1,600 per year, per dog.

Considering the cost of caring for a dog — both on pet owners’ wallets and their time — NerdWallet decided to look at 95 of the largest U.S. cities to find the best ones for dog ownership.

The winner? Portland, Oregon.

The personal finance website used three criteria to determine the most dog-friendly cities: number of off-leash dog parks, veterinary costs and city walkability.

Check out the top 20 cities for dog ownership below.

  1. Portland, Oregon
  2. Norfolk, Virginia
  3. Jersey City, New Jersey
  4. Madison, Wisconsin
  5. Las Vegas, Nevada
  6. Miami, Florida
  7. Washington, D.C.
  8. Milwaukee, Wisconsin
  9. St. Louis, Missouri
  10. Long Beach, California
  11. Baltimore, Maryland
  12. Seattle, Washington
  13. Oakland, California
  14. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
  15. Tampa, Florida
  16. Chicago, Illinois
  17. Cincinnati, Ohio
  18. Newark, New Jersey
  19. Buffalo, New York
  20. Sacramento, California

Laura Moss writes about a variety of topics with a focus on animals, science, language and culture. But she mostly writes about cats.

What's the best U.S. city to have a dog?
Using criteria of social opportunities, affordability and walkability, NerdWallet determined the 20 top cities for dog ownership.